It hardly abstains 1.200 metres from Turkey. Its extent is the 477 km2. The prefecture of Samos includes Ikaria and the islands Fournoi and has 34.000 residents. The form of island resembles with an oak leaf. The geographers that deal with Samos, find themelves in a paradoxical nonagreement as for the size, the form and the perimeter of the island.
Great culture was developed on this island and quite a few famous persons that dealt with art, literature, philosophy and the theories have lived here. The great mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras was born on Samos, whose theories influenced decisive the mathematic world. Another great personality, Aristarchos, was born and raised here. This great astronomer was Euklides student and the first one to declare that the earth is circling the sun whilst turning round its axis.
First residents of island were the Pelasgeans and later the Kares. During the tyranny of Polykrates (6th BC century) Samos knew big growth. This growth concerned economic, artistic and intellectual sectors.
The first trireme was build on the island and named after it “Samaina”. Today may of these old careenage are in use and produce boats. Such careenages one can still see in Marathokambos, Kokkari, Ag. Isidoros, that is found near in the community Kallithea, Karlovasi and elsewhere.
The tallest mountains of the Aegean are found on Samos. Mt. Kerkes is ideal for mountaineering and therefore only few have the opportunity to enjoy his wild beauty. On the other hand Mt. Ambelos (or Karvounis) can easier be reached and enjoyed by individuals of each age. Between the mountains one will find valleys and small plains, giving the visitor the impression of absolute harmony and infrequent beauty. This blessed and separate place achieves a unique combination of the colours of the earth and the sky.
Samos is the islands capital. It is located on the north-eastern side of the island, has 7500 inhabitants and a big natural harbour. The Pythagoras square with the eminent lion, which was set up there in 1930 for the celebration of 100 years from the revolution against the Turkish conquerors, is the most central location of the city. The Town-hall is accommodated inside the building of the chamber of deputies.
Though the island is quite small, it is known for its wine. It is said that Dionysos, the god of wine and vineyards, wanted to thank the inhabitants of the island for helping him fight off the Amazones, who dared to condemn his adoration and taught them the art of winemaking.
The economy of island is supported mainly by tourism, which constitutes the 53% of the residents’ income.
In the sea around Samos some islets and reefs can be seen. The biggest islets, that are according to the historical Plinios the islands of Kotsikas (Prasonisi, Daskalio, Giapori, and Ag. Paraskeui), are on the north-east side of Samos. Kasonisi is further more east. Samiopoula, which most likely is ancient Tragia is located on the south-west side of Samos. In this area took place the naval battle between the Athenians and Samos.
The climate of Samos is mild, cool in the summertime and cold in the winter. The sun shines almost 8 months and spreads its light over the beautiful beaches.
The island has regular coastal connection with Piraeus, but also with the Dodekanese, Chios, Mytilini, Ikaria, Fournoi and Efesos, which is located on the coast of Asia Minor. The airport has daily 4 internal national flights. During April and October over 50 charter planes reach each week the island. Flying dolphins connect daily Samos with the islands of Ikaria, Fournoi, Agathonisi, Leipsoi, Kos, Rhodes, Chios, Mytilini, Patmos, Leros and Kalymnos. There is also a flying dolphin that reaches Alexandroupoli and Kavala, while once week there is a big car-ferry boat that connects Samos with Thessalonica.